Nutrition Glossary

   

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Caffeine

Caffeine is a naturally occurring chemical found in plants. Common sources are coffee beans, tea leaves, guarana berries and smaller amounts are found in cocoa beans. Caffeine acts as a stimulant to the nervous system in the body, increasing mental alertness.

Calcium

Calcium is a mineral that is an important component of our bones. Dairy foods such as yogurt, milk and cheese are rich sources of calcium, and it is also found in canned salmon and sardines with bones, some nuts, seeds and fortified foods such as soy products, orange juice and cereals.

Calories (Cal)

Calories are a unit of energy. One Calorie is equal to about 4.18 kilojoules.

Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates are short or long chains of sugars that play an important role in the diet and are used to supply the body with energy. Sugar, starch and cellulose are all types of carbohydrates. Bread, cereals, rice, pasta, legumes, fruit and some vegetables are all good sources of carbohydrates.

Cardiovascular Disease

Cardiovascular disease is a name given to a group of diseases that affect the heart and/or blood vessels and includes stroke, heart attack, angina and high blood pressure.

Chicory

Chicory is a plant which has roots that can be roasted, ground and used to make a hot beverage. Chicory may be used as a coffee or tea substitute but unlike regular coffee and tea, chicory contains no caffeine.

Cholesterol

Cholesterol is a fat-like substance that has important functions in the body including an integral part of the structure of cells and being used by certain glands for making sex hormones. There are two types of cholesterol in the blood: HDL (high density liproprotein) or ‘good’ cholesterol and LDL (low density lipoprotein) or ‘bad’ cholesterol. High levels of LDL in the blood can increase the risk of cardiovascular disease.